Energy and Global Warming News for September 17th: Summer set records for nighttime temperatures; California braces for big showdown on emissions; Pipelines and anxiety — What next?

US Map: Summer Nighttime Temperatures

The Worst Summer Ever?

“Dark Side of Climate Change” Seen in Record Setting Night-time Temperatures

Summer 2010 set temperature records across the country and around the world. NRDC’s analysis of June, July, and August 2010 US temperature data from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) Historic Climatology Network reveal that this summer set heat records in many parts of the country. In fact, of the 1,218 weather stations in the contiguous United States, with data going back to 1895, 153 locations recorded their hottest summer on record and nearly one in three stations recorded average temperatures among their five hottest on record.

Even more telling is that nighttime lows were the hottest ever recorded at nearly one in four weather stations in NOAA’s Historic Climatology Network. This means that at 278 stations the average nighttime low temperatures for June, July and August 2010 were hotter than at any time since 1895. More than half the stations recorded average nighttime low temperatures among their five hottest on record. Nighttime temperatures are more sensitive to the buildup of heat-trapping pollution in the atmosphere than daytime temperatures because increases in atmospheric aerosols and cloud cover have counteracted some of the warming effect of greenhouse gases during the day. Hot, stagnant nights can prove even more harmful than daytime highs as vulnerable populations (particularly the elderly) are unable to cool down and get relief from the stress of the daytime heat.

Summer 2010 Temperatures from Weather Stations in NOAA’s Historic Climatology Network, by State

State Map of Average Temperatures Map of Nighttime Temperatures Table of State Weather Stations
North Carolina Summer Average Temperatures Summer Nighttime Temperatures Summer 2010 Temperatures
North Dakota Summer Average Temperatures Summer Nighttime Temperatures Summer 2010 Temperatures
Ohio Summer Average Temperatures Summer Nighttime Temperatures Summer 2010 Temperatures
Oklahoma Summer Average Temperatures Summer Nighttime Temperatures Summer 2010 Temperatures
Pennsylvania Summer Average Temperatures Summer Nighttime Temperatures Summer 2010 Temperatures
Rhode Island Summer Average Temperatures Summer Nighttime Temperatures Summer 2010 Temperatures
South Carolina Summer Average Temperatures Summer Nighttime Temperatures Summer 2010 Temperatures
South Dakota Summer Average Temperatures Summer Nighttime Temperatures Summer 2010 Temperatures
Tennessee Summer Average Temperatures Summer Nighttime Temperatures Summer 2010 Temperatures
Texas Summer Average Temperatures Summer Nighttime Temperatures Summer 2010 Temperatures
Virginia Summer Average Temperatures Summer Nighttime Temperatures Summer 2010 Temperatures
West Virginia Summer Average Temperatures Summer Nighttime Temperatures Summer 2010 Temperatures
Wisconsin Summer Average Temperatures Summer Nighttime Temperatures Summer 2010 Temperatures

While it is difficult to know for certain how many people experienced health effects of one kind or another due to record-high temperatures this summer, it is possible to estimate how many people may have been exposed to extreme temperatures by counting the populations in those counties where average and nighttime temperature records were set. The accompanying tables show how many people in each state where records were set live in counties where one or more weather stations recorded record average or nighttime summer temperatures. This examination reveals that nationwide, over 28.5 million people live in counties where this summer’s average temperature set records, and over 36 million people live in counties where the hottest summer nights were recorded this summer. (Record-setting temperatures source: NRDC fact sheet “Hottest Summer Ever”. Population data source:

The record heat experienced in the United States in the summer of 2010 is no isolated event. Global temperature data compiled by NASA show that the first seven months of 2010 was the hottest such period on record. This comes on top of the warmest decade on record (2000-2009), which surpassed the previous record set by the 1990s, which itself supplanted the 1980s as the warmest decade on record at that time.

Urgent call on EU to stop billion-euro ‘alien invasion’

Leading experts on invasive species are demanding Europe-wide legislation be put in place by next year to tackle the threat to native wildlife.

The researchers want urgent action from the EU to protect Europe’s indigenous species from these “alien invaders”.

Invasive, non-native animals, plants and microorganisms cause at least 12 billion euros of damage in Europe each year.

The scientists are meeting at the Neobiota conference in Copenhagen.

They are demanding Europe-wide legislation to be in place by next year to ensure the threat doesn’t worsen.

Invasive species are defined as those that are introduced accidentally or deliberately into a place where they are not normally found.

A European inventory in 2008 found more than 10,000 alien species in Europe, with 1,300 having some kind of impact. This impact was exerted either on the environment, economy or, on human health.

China’s Rise Complicates Goal of Using Less Energy

Despite huge investment in new technologies, China is finding it difficult to make its economy more energy-efficient, a senior official said Thursday.

The acknowledgment of difficulties by Zhang Laiwu, deputy minister for science and technology, comes as China has become the world’s largest auto market and is spending heavily on high-speed rail and other infrastructure projects that require a lot of steel and cement, which are energy-intensive to make.

A top Chinese auto executive predicted Thursday at a conference in Chengdu that annual auto sales in China would reach 40 million vehicles by 2020, more than twice the peak of the American market before the recent economic downturn. That could add to China’s energy-efficiency challenges, as more people drive cars rather than use mass transit.

Mr. Zhang said the country still hoped to reach a self-imposed goal of reducing “energy intensity” by 20 percent over the five-year period ending at the end of 2010. After strong progress from 2007 to 2009, this year saw some slippage, Mr. Zhang said at a news conference.

“We still have a lot of challenges,” he said. “We should not be too optimistic about this.”

California Braces for Showdown on Emissions

LOS ANGELES “” A ballot initiative to suspend a milestone California law curbing greenhouse gas emissions is drawing a wave of contributions from out-of-state oil companies, raising concerns among conservationists as it emerges as a test of public support for potentially costly environmental measures during tough economic times.

Charles and David Koch, the billionaires from Kansas who have played a prominent role in financing the Tea Party movement, donated $1 million to the campaign to suspend the Global Warming Solutions Act, which was passed four years ago, and signaled that they were prepared to invest more in the cause. With their contribution, proponents of the proposition have raised $8.2 million, with $7.9 million coming from energy companies, most of them out of state.

This latest embrace by the Koch brothers of a conservative cause jolted environmental leaders who are worried that a vote against the law in this state “” with its long history of environmental activism “” would amount to a powerful setback for emission control efforts in Washington and statehouses across the country.

“It would have big implications,” said George P. Shultz, the former secretary of state, who is a chairman of a campaign to defeat the ballot initiative. “That is one reason why these outside companies are pouring money in to try to derail the same thing. At the same time, the reverse is true: they put this fat in the fire and if we win, that also sends a message.”

Fungus Among Us Could Become Non-Food Source for Biodiesel Production

In the quest for alternatives to soybeans, palm, and other edible oilseed plants as sources for biodiesel production, enter an unlikely new candidate: A fungus, or mold, that produces and socks away large amounts of oils that are suitable for low-cost, eco-friendly biodiesel.

That’s the topic of a study in ACS’ journal Energy & Fuels.

Victoriano Garre and colleagues point out that manufacturers usually produce biodiesel fuel from plant oils — such as rapeseed, palm, and soy. However, expanded production from those sources could foster shortages that mean rising food prices. In addition, oilseeds require scare farmland, and costly fertilizers and pesticides. To meet growing demand for biodiesel fuel, scientists are looking for oil sources other than plants. Microorganisms such as fungi, which take little space to grow, are ideal candidates. But scientists first must find fungi that produce larger amounts of oil.

In the study, scientists describe a process for converting oil from an abundant producer called Mucor circinelloides into biodiesel without even extracting oil from the growth cultures. The resulting fungus-based biodiesel meets commercial specifications in the United States and Europe and production could be scaled to commercial levels, they note.

NASA Data Track Seasonal Pollution Changes Over India

Data from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) instrument on NASA’s Terra spacecraft have been used in a groundbreaking new university study that examines the concentration, distribution and composition of aerosol pollution over the Indian subcontinent. The study documents the region’s very high levels of natural and human-produced pollutants, and uncovered surprising seasonal shifts in the source of the pollution.

Larry Di Girolamo and postdoctoral scientist Sagnik Dey of the University of Illinois, Champaign, used a decade’s worth of MISR data to comprehensively analyze aerosol pollution over the Indian subcontinent. This densely populated region has poor air quality and lacks on-the-ground pollution monitoring sites. The study was published recently in the Journal of Geophysical Research.

Aerosols — tiny particles suspended in the air — are produced both by natural sources, such as dust and pollen carried on the wind, and by human activities, such as soot and other hydrocarbons released from the burning of fossil fuels. They can affect the environment and human health, causing a range of respiratory problems. Aerosol pollution levels can be measured on the ground, but only the most developed countries have widespread sensor data.

Pipelines and Anxiety: What Next?

As anyone living in the Midwest can tell you, gasoline prices have been mighty high in recent days. Since a pipeline operated by the Canadian company Enbridge ruptured last week outside of Chicago, the second such incident concerning an Enbridge pipeline in the Midwest this summer, prices at the pump have spurted up as much as 30 cents a gallon around much of the region.

In all likelihood, the pain at the gas pump will not be long-lasting. Line 6A has been patched up, the price spike is easing, and the company hopes it can be back servicing several refineries in the next couple of weeks if not sooner. But there may be a lasting political impact, especially these days, when memories of the BP spill accident in the gulf are still fresh.

And then there was last week’s natural gas pipeline explosion outside San Francisco, which destroyed much of a community. That was a utility line, and thus completely different from the ruptured Enbridge pipelines connecting oil fields with refineries. But in the public’s mind, they all fit into an uneasy realization that perhaps the pipes we depend on for our energy are not safe.

As Tom Kloza, chief oil analyst at the Oil Price Information Service, told me on Wednesday, “Suddenly things that never received much notice before have become issues.”

Those issues are boiling in both Canada and the United States, countries that share energy and much else. Enbridge is seeking approval in Canada to build a massive pipeline project across British Columbia that could serve as a path for more than 500,000 barrels a day of oil refined from the Alberta oil sands to the coast for shipping to Asian markets.

A Rare Atlantic Hurricane Triple Header

Brian McNoldy, a meteorologist tracking Atlantic Ocean hurricanes at Colorado State University, just distributed this note from Phil Klotzbach, a colleague, about the unusual storminess in the Atlantic and Caribbean at the moment:

With Karl becoming a hurricane, we have three hurricanes at the same time. This is a pretty rare occurrence. The only other years that this has occurred are 1893, 1926, 1950, 1961, 1967, 1980, 1995, and 1998. 1998 even had four hurricanes at the same time!

You can see the storms in the NASA image above (animation is here). Other views are aggregated at McNoldy’s Web site.

I’ve sent a query to some hurricane researchers to get a bit more on what, besides warm sea temperatures, makes conditions this ripe for powerful tropical storms. McNoldy said the conditions are ripe because we’re precisely in the middle of hurricane season and there’s little wind shear, a condition in which layers of air at different altitudes move at different speeds and which tends to break up hurricanes. More reactions will be added as they come in. In the meantime, keep a weather eye on the Web site of the National Hurricane Center and Kerry Emanuel’s page at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which collects a variety of forecasts of storm strengths and tracks.

Stress-Testing the Planet

The chances of substantive political progress at the Cancun climate talks this year are slim, but at the more mundane level of trying better to understand the problem there are two interesting climate-related events closer to home. The Science Museum in London is finishing a new gallery called Atmosphere, which aims to explain climate science in a straightforward way to a confused public. It will be well worth a visit if only to see how complex this branch of science really is and to gauge the limits of our knowledge.

Meanwhile, at the Newton Institute in Cambridge, a group of the world’s leading climate modellers are trying to push out the limits of knowledge by analyzing and reducing the uncertainties in climate models. The truth is that while we know a lot about the behavior of some of the main components of the climate system and we have a sense of how the whole fits together there is still a lot of scope for surprises””especially when we try to figure out what will actually happen as we stress the climate system with increased greenhouse gases.

Replace climate system by financial system in the last sentence and read mortgage-backed securities for greenhouse gases and you have something that might have been written by a central banker any time up to summer 2007. The results of that particular financial experiment are now in. The one on the climate system is very much running. What might we read across from one to the other?

Firstly, the Citigroup principle””if the music is playing, then carry on dancing””holds good. While there is plenty of money to be made from activities that create greenhouse gases it is hard to see this activity slowing meaningfully any time soon. Secondly, there will probably be a Northern Rock moment””some unmistakable public signal that, while not a disaster in itself, lets us know that trouble is surely on its way. An ice-free summer Arctic Ocean might serve this purpose. While fighting shy of exact predictions, the researchers in the field would not be greatly surprised if this happened in the next decade or so.

UN scientists say ozone layer depletion has stopped

The protective ozone layer in the earth’s upper atmosphere has stopped thinning and should largely be restored by mid century thanks to a ban on harmful chemicals, UN scientists said on Thursday.

The “Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion 2010” report said a 1987 international treaty that phased out chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) — substances used in refrigerators, aerosol sprays and some packing foams — had been successful.

Ozone provides a natural protective filter against harmful ultra-violet rays from the sun, which can cause sunburn, cataracts and skin cancer as well as damage vegetation.

First observations of a seasonal ozone hole appearing over the Antarctic occurred in the 1970s and the alarm was raised in the 1980s after it was found to be worsening under the onslaught of CFCs, prompting 196 countries to join the Montreal Protocol.

The toll lead takes on Mt Isa’s infants
AN international expert has found some children in Mount Isa are suffering from brain damage and retardation caused by their prolonged exposure to lead.

His reports – commissioned by five families suing mining giant Xstrata, the Queensland government and the local council – are the first scientific evidence of the effect on children of lead pollution from the hardrock mine and smelters in the central Queensland town. Queensland Health testing found in 2008 that 11 per cent of Mount Isa’s children – aged between one and four years – had dangerously high levels of lead. The testing was ordered after The Australian revealed evidence of metal contamination of soils and water. A follow-up study, to be released this year, has so far determined that about 5 per cent of children still have blood lead levels above the international and Australian safety limits. This is despite a crackdown on the mine’s emissions and an education campaign on how to limit exposure.

Queensland Health chief medical officer Jeannette Young yesterday contradicted previous claims by Anglo-Swiss mining giant Xstrata, which took over the mine in 2003, that much of the poisoning was due to a naturally occurring presence of lead in the town. “I do know the cause; it is emissions being released from the mine,” Dr Young said. “If you think where it is coming from, it is coming from emissions from the smelter that are going up in the air and they are depositing across the town fairly evenly.”

The new medical reports have focused on two children – Sidney Body, 5, and Bethany Sanders, 4, – who recorded the worst lead poisoning. Sidney had a blood lead level of 31.5 micrograms per decilitre – three times the international safety limit – while Bethany posted 27.4mcg/dL.

26 Responses to Energy and Global Warming News for September 17th: Summer set records for nighttime temperatures; California braces for big showdown on emissions; Pipelines and anxiety — What next?

  1. Sasparilla says:

    Here’s a piece on Alberta’s tar sands (more workers there now than during the prior 2008 peak) and planning on almost tripling production by 2015:

  2. BillD says:

    Deniers interpret the warmer night time temperatures as evidence for the “urban heat island” (UHI)effect, although they don’t explain why temperatures should be increasing in urban, rural and uninhabited regions at the same time. A key point is that the greenhouse effect is expected to reduce nighttime cooling more than it increases daytime highs.

    In winter 2009 I attended the annual meeting of the Dutch Ecological Society and was surprised by the number of studies, mainly on plants, about species that were expanding their ranges from Spain and Portugal into Northern Europe. I guess that range expansion across national boundaries causes more notice and concern than the equivalent northern expansion of species distributions across state boundaries in the USA.

  3. Colorado Bob says:

    Drought and warm temperatures have been affecting the North American white spruce and birch trees in interior Alaska around Fairbanks. A forest ecologist at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks said that the effects of prolonged dry conditions and above-normal temperatures are transforming Alaska’s boreal forest. The white spruce requires at least 11 inches (280 mm) of precipitation annually to survive—and more than that if temperatures rise above 60°F (15.5°C). The trees cannot survive temperatures above 70°F (21.1°C). According to the U.S. Drought Monitor, Fairbanks and surrounding areas have experienced abnormally dry conditions since the beginning of 2010. The April–May 2010 period in Fairbanks also saw near-record warmth. As reported above in the Drought and Wildfires section, temperatures broke the 90°F (32.2°C) mark at the Fairbanks airport on August 15th, according to records at the National Weather Service. By the end of August, there were 14 days in 2010 that hit 80°F (26.7°C) or higher at the airport. Temperatures across the eastern interior, stretching from Northway to Bettles, also saw record or near-record warmth during the August late-summer heat wave. The growing season in the region is now 120 days, 50 percent longer than a century ago. This means that there is a shorter period for snow to accumulate and a longer period of time between snowmelt and summer rains, factors that combine to produce more intense dry conditions. Birch trees in the area, once thought to be able to cope with a changing climate, are proving to be susceptible as well. In August, birch trees on the University of Alaska, Fairbanks campus showed indications of leaf scorch, the last visible symptom before a tree dies, according to the forest ecologist.

    From the Global Hazards section of the August report

  4. catman306 says:

    Repower America has a new video

    Dear Friend,

    We share a simple but powerful belief: Clean air belongs to all of us.

    But right now, big oil, dirty coal and their allies in Congress are busy acting like the air belongs to them. They’ve renewed their multi-million dollar assault on the Clean Air Act — a piece of legislation that has successfully protected public health and the environment by keeping big polluters in check for four decades.

    We need more people to get involved and stop them from gutting this crucial law.

    That’s why Alec Baldwin, Kris Kristofferson and thousands of supporters are taking part in a new video to help spread the word about our fight to protect clean air.

    Watch the new Clean Air Act video today and share it with your friends and family.

  5. Bill W says:

    Wow, a WSJ story that actually acknowledges climate change! Of course, it’s from the European edition, written by a Brit.

  6. Anderwan says:

    Fungi aren’t photosynthetic, which means unless one of the main inputs to a fungus fuel system is a photosynthesis product, no CO2/methane win is conceivable. Aren’t yeasts (as in, the microbe used in ethanol production already) kingdom fungus? Bad headline and article from Science Daily, then. Should maybe be more like Fungus Among Us May Enable Creation of Fuel from Generic Non-Food Plant Matter? I’m nitpicking about the title but they should at least get more detailed in the article.

  7. Sasparilla says:

    The car wreck you can see coming in 2012 – Palin going to Iowa:

    While having her as a Republican Presidential Candidate (or the VP she was) previously was actually a good thing since she turned off the middle for the most part, I don’t think that would be the case now – my gut says she’d probably have a pretty good chance at this point (and be much more politically expediant – i.e. wouldn’t appear to be such a dingbat on camera and in debates).

    Guessing, she’ll certainly run, (barring any major new issues), at this point she’d probably win the GOP ticket and possibly be the first presidential contender with direct backing of a single TV network (wouldn’t be surprised if she only gives Fox news interviews this time to avoid any bad interviews like she had previously).

    I can only shake my head at how things seem to be lining up…primaries are next year.

  8. Peter M says:

    Every month in Connecticut 2010 has been warmer then average.
    will it be the warmest on record? wait till the last week of December.

    the drought here has been- well in a word- wilting- some rain last night, but hardly enough to soak into the dry packed soil.

    Sarah Palin- in Iowa- I must say, just what we need at this juncture of American & world history- are we doomed even more?

  9. Inverse says:

    Whats the reason for the cooler temperatures having smaller dots? I cant for the life of me think why global warming is being questioned for providing bias stats. Tell the truth and people will follow…

  10. Richard Brenne says:

    How long has NOAA been doing this summer nighttime temperature map? Or did they just do it this year in response to so many summer nighttime temperatures?

    This summer anyway the records correspond closely to expected high levels of humidity, usually from access to Gulf of Mexico moisture. Water vapor is the most plentiful and thus potent greenhouse gas to prevent heat from radiating into space during the night.

    Places with smog like L.A., San Francisco and other Western cities didn’t have the records many smaller stations had, and all the states right on the Gulf had the highest ratio of records.

    Of course records mean something unusual – so was there an unusual amount of Gulf Moisture in the eastern half of the U.S. this summer?

  11. Robert says:

    China’s target of a reduction of 20% in energy intensity over 5 years sounds good but will more than offset by their growth, currently running at around 9%:

    9% growth translates into a doubling of GDP in 7.7 years (100Ln2/9). Unless the energy mix moves radically away from fossil fuels this suggests that Chinese CO2 will (almost) double in the same period, even with improvements in energy intensity. India is going the same way with 7.4% growth.

    Inaction on CO2 by the developed world is inexcusable and we must keep up the pressure, but China and India are set to move centre stage in the next decade.

  12. AFP: Russian heatwave killed 11,000 people

    Moscow registered nearly 11,000 deaths due to an unprecedented heatwave this summer, a city official said, as the mortality rate more than doubled in the Russian capital.

  13. Andy says:

    Its the dots man, its gots to be the dots. Im mean like sense when is bigger used to mean higher or more, like whats up with that dude. Dude, you are so biased dude. Come on, like why does the thermometer go up instead of down when it gets hotter? Its like a comspirasy dude. YOu get it? You get it? Bigger means higher but that is so wrong, like so wrong.

  14. Whatshisname says:

    I’ve lived in or traveled to most of those dots in Texas, New Mexico and Oklahoma in particular, and some of them are way the Sam Hill out in the middle of nowhere, far from the nearest urban heat island. Some of those same remote areas also have reliable weather data pre-dating 1895. The observers (which included farmers, ranchers and those manning isolated Army posts and train depots) took it very seriously. Wouldn’t they be amazed and proud to see their diligence put to such noble use?

  15. I can comment the changes in climate in Hungary. A few years ago, there was almost no rain at all, about 600 mm a year. Now it has dramatically changed and it is raining all the time. I think this year it is at least double of the average.

  16. Chris Winter says:

    “Urgent call on EU to stop billion-euro ‘alien invasion’ “

    The BBC article cites DAISIE —
    Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe

    But I have to take responsibility for this:

    DAISIE, DAISIE, give us your answer, do.
    What strange species have come to make us blue?
    Crepidula Fornicata
    Is latest in the data.
    It won’t be sweet, it lives in sheets
    And it leaves behind piles of poo.

  17. Prokaryotes says:

    The warm summer brought an early harvest for many apple growers in New England this year, but it’s not all good news.

    The Department of Agriculture says two hard frosts in May severely damaged crops. They forecast that the apple crop in every New England state except Rhode Island will be down almost 20% compared to last year.

    One orchard owner says he lost nearly 80% of his crop.

  18. James Newberry says:

    “an uneasy realization that perhaps the pipes we depend on for our energy are not safe.”

    One sign of myth indicating collapse is the fraud that pipes carry “energy.” Pipes do not carry energy. They carry fluids, which are states of matter. The difference between the words is the difference of meaning between left or right, up or down, in vs. out, and life or death.

    We seem to be a culture with too much gas (and hot air), based on an economy of explosives (combustible materials and uranium). It is a burning question concerning the question of burning.

  19. Prokaryotes says:

    A San Bruno man is suing Pacific Gas and Electric Company for repercussions from a gas pipeline explosion that tore through his neighborhood Sept. 9, his attorney said today.

    Steve Dare, a resident of San Bruno, rents a home that was near the explosion of a natural gas pipeline that destroyed at least 37 homes on the evening of Sept. 9.

  20. Prokaryotes says:

    Obama administration leaves climate change to Congress, not the courts
    The stance on a suit seeking limits on pollution from coal-fired power plants has disappointed environmentalists. The case is being watched as a test of whether producers of greenhouse gases can be sued.

  21. Prokaryotes says:

    A Threat to California’s Climate Change Progress

    California’s ambitious climate change agenda could evaporate in a vote in November that pits renewable energy advocates and allies against oil companies and manufacturers.

    Why not just go the sustainable way – it is cheaper in the long run.

  22. Prokaryotes says:

    Boeing Wins Bid to Build Vulture, the Solar Spyplane That Stays Aloft for Five Years

  23. Prokaryotes says:

    BP’s Competitors Face Risk of Catastrophic Accident, Too, Financial Analysts Say
    Chevron, Occidental, Exxon Mobil, Petrochina and Murphy Oil all score poorly in industry risk ranking

  24. Prokaryotes says:

    Foam Inspired by Nest of a Frog to Absorb CO2 in Coal Plant Flues
    Invention wins Earth Awards top prize, and global attention

  25. Prokaryotes says:

    Nissan to Nearly Double Capacity in China by 2012

    Companies like nissan are the future apple company for cars. Did you saw steve jobs iphone 4 presentation, featuring nissan’s revolutionary electric car add?