Number Of U.S. Children Living In Poverty Increased By 1 Million Last Year | More than one in five children in the U.S. lives in poverty, according to 2010 Census data, rising from 14.7 million children in 2009 to 15.7 million in 2010. According to Census figures, the child poverty rate increased in 27 states. At 38.2 percent, African American children had the highest rates of poverty, while white and Asian children were below the national average. The rate for Hispanic children was 32.3 percent. “Children who live in poverty, especially young children, are more likely than their peers to have cognitive and behavioral difficulties, to complete fewer years of education, and, as they grow up, to experience more years of unemployment,” the Census said.