January 9 News: Boreal Ducks “Doomed by Earlier Snow Melts Brought on by Global Warming, Study Finds”

Other stories below: Fight Against EPA Orders Heads to Supreme Court; 600,000 homes damaged by floods, freezing and droughts in Mexico in 2011

Scientists long puzzled by the rapid decline in millions of Canadian boreal ducks since the 1970s think they may finally have the cause: global warming.

“Because of climate change, the ducks don’t have the food that they need when they need it,” Stuart Slattery, a research scientist with Ducks Unlimited Canada, told CBC News on Friday.

Slattery and a team of scientists from the University of British Columbia, the University of Saskatchewan and Environment Canada have long been trying to solve a mystery in Canada’s boreal forests: why have two duck species, the scaup and scoter, dropped so dramatically in numbers — by 40 per cent and 60 per cent, respectively — in just three decades?

The scaup population, for instance, plunged from six million to 3½ million.

Fight Against EPA Orders Heads to Supreme Court

In a case watched closely by energy companies and manufacturers, the Supreme Court is set to consider Monday whether to blunt one of the government’s chief tools for enforcing the Clean Water Act.Based on “any information”—even a newspaper article or an anonymous tip—the Environmental Protection Agency can issue an administrative compliance order directing a property owner to stop discharging pollutants or restore a damaged wetland. The government says such directives, similar to stop-work orders by local zoning inspectors, allow it to respond rapidly to prevent environmental damage.

But business groups contend that the EPA acts as a judge and jury, forcing property owners either to comply, often at great expense, or risk penalties of up to $37,500 a day if the agency later obtains a court ruling to enforce its directive.

Challengers say that by issuing compliance orders without first giving property owners a chance to contest them in court, the EPA skirts the federal law and the Fifth Amendment guarantee of due process.

U.S.’s Salazar Said to Ban Uranium-Mining Near Grand Canyon

U.S. Interior Secretary Ken Salazar will announce a 20-year ban on uranium mining near the Grand Canyon, according to an environmental group monitoring the issue.Salazar will impose a moratorium today on new mining claims on 1 million acres of public land around the Arizona tourist site, according to a representative of the group who spoke on condition of anonymity before the official announcement.

A press conference scheduled in Washington will be about the “conservation of the Grand Canyon,” the Interior Department website said. Agency spokesman Adam Fetcher declined in an e-mail to provide details, which were reported earlier by the New York Times and the Associated Press.

Unseasonably warm weather sweeps across U.S.

After glacial temperatures in early December, the new year brought temperatures across the country reminiscent of spring, not winter. Last week, Lincoln’s temperature was almost 70 degrees.

“I don’t think I’ve seen a winter this mild since I moved to Nebraska,” said Daniel Baquet, a freshman international business and Spanish major at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln who moved to Lincoln 12 years ago. He began this year by driving around town with his car windows down.

The warmth was hardly limited to Nebraska. Hundreds of high-temperature records were broken in dozens of states. Nearly the entire country was above freezing. In the Dakotas, some towns saw highs 40 degrees above normal. Lincoln’s temperature was the same as Miami’s.

A dismal ski season all-around

The snow cover across the U.S. can be best described by one word: pathetic. Here it is January 6, and just 16 percent of the U.S. has snow on the ground. Last year at this time, about 45 percent of the country had snow.

The lack of snow is taking a serious toll on the ski industry and other forms of winter tourism.

“Nationwide, the lack of snow is costing tens of millions of dollars in winter recreation, restaurant, lodging and sporting goods sales,” the Associated Press (AP) reported.

Reporting for Climate Central, CWG’s Andrew Freedman talked to David Robinson, director of the Global Snow Lab at Rutgers University, who said snow cover in December was 11th least extensive in the 46-year satellite record.’s Jeff Masters found “95% of the country that normally has snow at this time of year had below-average snow cover” (in December).

Solar energy connects remote communities in Peru

In a sunny courtyard made of reeds, about 60 students from the Torani primary school, on Lake Titicaca, do the roll call in neat rows, wearing colourful uniforms.

They belong to the Uros people, who still live in small floating islands in the bay of Puno in south-eastern Peru.

Like their ancestors centuries ago, these residents of pre-Inca descent continue to build their houses and islands with the aquatic plants that abound in the lake.

The school itself is floating. And this is where the children learn to read Aymara and Spanish, and also where they have recently begun to connect to the rest of the world.

“For us, it was a joy when we got an internet signal,” says Santos Pineda, the school’s head teacher.

Mexico: Damage to 600,000 households from drought, freezing weather, floods in 2011

Mexico’s social development secretary says an estimated 600,000 households suffered property damage or crop losses due to an unusual combination of floods, drought and freezing weather in 2011.

Heriberto Felix Guerra says the drought has been so bad that about 2.6 million people in about 1,650 villages and towns in northern Mexico do not even have drinking water.

O’Malley wind farms face more challenges as Maryland legislature returns

The day Maryland lawmakers left Annapolis nine months ago, Gov. Martin O’Malley chided them, saying the legislature had “choked” on his signature environmental initiative: a measure to subsidize development of a multibillion-dollar offshore wind farm.

The plan would have added a couple of extra dollars to every Marylander’s monthly electric bill for 20 years and thousands onto those of the state’s largest businesses. O’Malley (D) argued the costs would be worth it for about 2,000 jobs and a foothold for Maryland in a promising new green-energy market.

But as the legislature returns this week to Annapolis for the start to the 2012 session, there is little evidence that O’Malley’s ambition for offshore wind has grown easier for lawmakers to swallow.

60 Responses to January 9 News: Boreal Ducks “Doomed by Earlier Snow Melts Brought on by Global Warming, Study Finds”

  1. Mike Roddy says:

    The boreal duck decline is occurring at a 1C increase. We have little idea what’s in store for us at a 2 or 3C increase. Land sink crashes will cause the biggest problems.

    This uncertainty needs to be implemented in a political/scientific strategy. Dangers that are unknown in both specifics and severity require aggressive prevention- in this case, halting the burning of fossil fuels.

    Instead, there is a rush to drill in the Arctic. This kind of activity is unconscionable, and must be resisted.

  2. prokaryotes says:

    Methane release and Runaway Climate Change

    Check out the ASL graphic which show incredible methane uptake in a short time frame.

  3. Colorado Bob says:

    Manitoba Heat Wave Scotches First Nations Ice Roads

    In Berens River First Nation the high temperatures have created a health emergency, CBC News reported on January 5. The community had run out of gasoline and could not fuel its ambulances. Chief George Kemp told CBC News that health workers were unable to reach home-care patients and said that 30 residents may have to evacuate.

  4. Colorado Bob says:

    FULTON, Texas (AP) – Scientists are warning that the devastating drought in Texas could threaten the world’s only remaining flock of whooping cranes.

  5. Colorado Bob says:

    State of Emergency Continues in Cordova, Alaska National Guardsmen Arrive to Help

    Meanwhile, National Weather Service officials said Thursday Valdez had 289.01 inches of snow this season — and winter has just begun.
    Another report , said the Guard reported 18 feet of snow in Cordova. It is raining on this snow pack now.

  6. Colorado Bob says:

    New Book, “Climate Discovery Chronicles” by Bruce Melton and Casa Grande Press

    Austin, TX, January 09, 2012 –(– Have you ever heard of icequakes 1,000 times more powerful than anything before coming from Greenland’s Ice Sheet? How about much of the U.S. seeing perpetual Dust Bowl conditions beginning in 2030? Have you heard about our carbon dioxide emissions rate being 14,000 times greater today than the last 610,000 years? Or, recent discoveries about our atmosphere that tell us transportation is responsible for two and a half times more warming than coal? Have you heard that the solutions to climate change will be no more difficult or costly than the creation of Earth’s human waste collection and treatment infrastructure? Bruce Melton’s book details 41 new climate discoveries, not from the blogosphere, but from the academic literature.

  7. Colorado Bob says:

    KATHMANDU: Ask a question about melting glaciers and pocket $500. “Glacier-hard cash in your pocket… all you have to do is attend a movie screening, ask a question and send us a video,” Steven Milloy, climate change denier wrote on the US-based website

    After the US Department of State announced that it is going to air a UNDP-funded documentary titled ‘Revealed: Himalayan Meltdown ’on Monday, at its office in Washington and discuss about climate change, climate change sceptics, who write and advocate against climate change, announced to pay anyone, who attended the show and ask questions to challenge climate change.

    “We will pay $500 to anyone who submits a video of themselves attending the State Department event and asking questions that aim to debunk the notion that global warming is causing the Himalayan glaciers to disappear,” Milloy added.

  8. prokaryotes says:

    That is not desperate that is criminal.

  9. Joe Romm says:

    Well, #2, #3, and #5 have been reported at length here. Not sure #4 is true — certainly not in 2011.

  10. Colorado Bob says:

    Houston’s city manager, Michael Walter, said that parts of the city had received 1-3 inches of rain. Some isolated areas of Houston have received 4 inches, said Walter.

    The rain was falling so hard and fast in Houston, the National Weather Service recorded 1.6 inches in a 10-minute period.

  11. Colorado Bob says:

    The latest developments came after Chilean President Sebastian Pinera invoked an anti-terror law to pursue those responsible for the deadly blaze that killed the firefighters.

    “Deliberate fires are terrorist crimes,” Mr Pinera said…………

    Across central and southern Chile, wildfires have burned about 500sq km (190 square miles) of forest and grassland in recent days.

  12. Colorado Bob says:

    In order to live at the same temperature, species would have to shift northward by 249 kilometres (155 miles), they calculated. …… The data derives from observations made by a network of thousands of amateur naturalists, amounting to a remarkable 1.5 million hours of fieldwork.

  13. prokaryotes says:

    Younger Dryas cooling apparently didn’t show up in Australian region

  14. prokaryotes says:

    Time of emergence of climate signals – Hawkins & Sutton (2012) [FULL TEXT]

    Abstract: “The time at which the signal of climate change emerges from the noise of natural climate variability (Time of Emergence, ToE) is a key variable for climate predictions and risk assessments. Here we present a methodology for estimating ToE for individual climate models, and use it to make maps of ToE for surface air temperature (SAT) based on the CMIP3 global climate models. Consistent with previous studies we show that the median ToE occurs several decades sooner in low latitudes, particularly in boreal summer, than in mid-latitudes. We also show that the median ToE in the Arctic occurs sooner in boreal winter than in boreal summer. A key new aspect of our study is that we quantify the uncertainty in ToE that arises not only from inter-model differences in the magnitude of the climate change signal, but also from large differences in the simulation of natural climate variability. The uncertainty in ToE is at least 30 years in the regions examined, and as much as 60 years in some regions. Alternative emissions scenarios lead to changes in both the median ToE (by a decade or more) and its uncertainty. The SRES B1 scenario is associated with a very large uncertainty in ToE in some regions. Our findings have important implications for climate modelling and climate policy which we discuss.”

  15. prokaryotes says:

    New article says cosmic rays have strong effect to climate

    Cosmic rays and space weather: effects on global climate change – Dorman (2012) [FULL TEXT]

    Comments: This paper makes a case for strong effect of cosmic rays on climate. However, the paper seems to ignore most of the papers showing evidence against the cosmic ray hypothesis

  16. prokaryotes says:

    Different malaria species react differently to warming in India’s Thar Desert

  17. prokaryotes says:

    Female corals are more vulnerable to elevated carbon dioxide

    Abstract: “The effects of nutrients and pCO2 on zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate colonies of the temperate scleractinian coral Astrangia poculata (Ellis and Solander, 1786) were investigated at two different temperatures (16 °C and 24 °C). Corals exposed to elevated pCO2 tended to have lower relative calcification rates, as estimated from changes in buoyant weights. Experimental nutrient enrichments had no significant effect nor did there appear to be any interaction between pCO2 and nutrients. Elevated pCO2 appeared to have a similar effect on coral calcification whether zooxanthellae were present or absent at 16 °C. However, at 24 °C, the interpretation of the results is complicated by a significant interaction between gender and pCO2 for spawning corals. At 16 °C, gamete release was not observed, and no gender differences in calcification rates were observed – female and male corals showed similar reductions in calcification rates in response to elevated CO2 (15% and 19% respectively). Corals grown at 24 °C spawned repeatedly and male and female corals exhibited two different growth rate patterns – female corals grown at 24 °C and exposed to CO2 had calcification rates 39% lower than females grown at ambient CO2, while males showed a non-significant decline of 5% under elevated CO2. The increased sensitivity of females to elevated pCO2 may reflect a greater investment of energy in reproduction (egg production) relative to males (sperm production). These results suggest that both gender and spawning are important factors in determining the sensitivity of corals to ocean acidification, and considering these factors in future research may be critical to predicting how the population structures of marine calcifiers will change in response to ocean acidification.”

    I think it is a rule of thumb, that the female gender is more vulnerable to climate disruption and all it’s stressor, in general.

  18. Colorado Bob says:

    Joe –
    What do I what to see here in 2012 ?
    Get a biologist to pull in the response of living things . These charts and models don’t move people, like all climate change, death comes first as the new climate is born .

    Case in point :
    Drought threatens flock of whooping cranes

  19. prokaryotes says:

    Inland waters take in organic carbon and emit methane

    Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir – Sobek et al. (2012)
    Abstract: “Organic carbon (OC) burial and greenhouse gas emission of inland waters plays an increasingly evident role in the carbon balance of the continents, and particularly young reservoirs in the tropics emit methane (CH4) at high rates. Here we show that an old, temperate reservoir acts simultaneously as a strong OC sink and CH4 source, because the high sedimentation rate supplies reactive organic matter to deep, anoxic sediment strata, fuelling methanogenesis and gas bubble emission (ebullition) of CH4 from the sediment. Damming of the river has resulted in the build-up of highly methanogenic sediments under a shallow water column, facilitating the transformation of fixed CO2 to atmospheric CH4. Similar high OC burial and CH4 ebullition is expected in other reservoirs and natural river deltas.”

  20. prokaryotes says:

    Findings like this we can add to the list of unknown, unknowns. This finding in particular presents another explanation for the so called PETM event.

  21. prokaryotes says:

    Key Points
    High sedimentation fuels extreme methane emission in a temperate reservoir
    The factors leading to extreme methane emission are widespread
    River damming carries the risk of increasing aquatic methane emission

  22. prokaryotes says:

    Small net positive radiative forcing of dark aerosols above bright clouds

    Direct and semi-direct radiative forcing of smoke aerosols over clouds – Wilcox (2012)

    Abstract: “Observations from Earth observing satellites indicate that dark carbonaceous aerosols that absorb solar radiation are widespread in the tropics and subtropics. When these aerosols mix with clouds, there is generally a reduction of cloudiness owing to absorption of solar energy in the aerosol layer. Over the subtropical South Atlantic Ocean, where smoke from savannah burning in southern Africa resides above a persistent deck of marine stratocumulus clouds, radiative heating of the smoke layer leads to a thickening of the cloud layer. Here, satellite observations of the albedo of overcast scenes of 25 km2 size or larger are combined with additional satellite observations of clouds and aerosols to estimate the top-of-atmosphere direct radiative forcing attributable to presence of dark aerosol above bright cloud, and the negative semi-direct forcing attributable to the thickening of the cloud layer. The average positive direct radiative forcing by smoke over an overcast scene is 9.2±6.6 W m−2 for cases with an unambiguous signal of absorbing aerosol over cloud in passive ultraviolet remote sensing observations. However, cloud liquid water path is enhanced by 16.3±7.7 g m−2 across the range of values for sea surface temperature for cases of smoke over cloud. The negative radiative forcing associated with this semi-direct effect of smoke over clouds is estimated to be −5.9±3.5 W m−2. Therefore, the cooling associated with the semi-direct cloud thickening effect compensates for greater than 60 % of the direct radiative effect. Accounting for the frequency of occurrence of significant absorbing aerosol above overcast scenes leads to an estimate of the average direct forcing of 1.0±0.7 W m−2 contributed by these scenes averaged over the subtropical southeast Atlantic Ocean during austral winter. The regional average of the negative semi-direct forcing is −0.7±0.4 W m−2. Therefore, smoke aerosols overlaying the decks of overcast marine stratocumulus clouds considered here yield a small net positive radiative forcing, which results from the difference of two larger effects.”

    Clouds + Aerosols more radiative forcing (yet another positive feedback)

  23. prokaryotes says:

    CLASSIC OF THE WEEK: Schneider (1972)

    Cloudiness as a Global Climatic Feedback Mechanism: The Effects on the Radiation Balance and Surface Temperature of Variations in Cloudiness – Schneider (1972)

    The effect of variation in cloudiness on the climate is considered in terms of 1) a relation between the radiation balance of the earth-atmosphere system and variations in the amount of cloud cover or effective cloud top height, 2) the effect on the surface temperature of variations in cloudiness, and 3) the dynamic coupling or “feedback” effects relating changes in surface temperature to the formation of clouds. The first two points are studied by numerical integration of a simple radiation flux model, and the third point is discussed qualitatively. Global-average radiation balance calculations show that an increase in the amount of low and middle level cloud cover (with cloud top height and cloud albedo fixed) decreases the surface temperature. But, this result for the global-average case does not hold near polar regions, where the albedo of the cloudy areas can he comparable to (or even smaller than) the albedo of the snow-covered cloudless areas, and where, especially in the winter season, the amount of incoming solar radiation at high latitudes is much less than the global-average value of insolation. The exact latitude at which surface cooling changes to surface warming from a given increase in cloud cover amount depends critically upon the local values of the cloud albedo and the albedo of the cloudless areas that are used in the calculation. However, an increase in effective cloud top height (with cloud cover and cloud albedo fixed) increases the surface temperature at all latitudes.

  24. Colorado Bob says:

    The article speaks of the red tide , it has been there for months. Long term it is our real problem . It kills nearly everything. And it has already made to jump to our new hotter world.

  25. Colorado Bob says:

    Nobody ever explained the carbon dump like Modonna –
    Madonna – Ray Of Light

  26. David B. Benson says:

    A study for the UK:


    appears to assume ample bulk storage (pumped hydro) as a means of taming a hgh penetration of (oof-shre) wind. Intrestingly, taping into Spanish solar didn’t seem to be that helpdul.

  27. prokaryotes says:


    Oil is more toxic than previously thought, study finds

    Bad news for the Gulf of Mexico: a study released in late December sheds new light on the toxicity of oil in aquatic environments, and shows that environmental impact studies currently in use may be inadequate. The report was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  28. prokaryotes says:

    The key finding involved the embryos of Pacific herring that spawn in the bay. The fish embryos absorbed the oil and then, when exposed to UV rays in sunlight, physically disintegrated. This is called phototoxicity, and has not previously been taken into account when talking about oil spills.

  29. Colorado Bob says:

    I have been thinking ,
    Let us invest in what we know , and use that money to fund what we care about .

    Example :
    Last year peanuts were $450 a ton, Oct 31st they were $1200.00 a ton.
    If we’re going to hell let’s buy some bullets on the way.

  30. prokaryotes says:

    Joe please update your latest methane feedback post, especially as it is based on PETM aproximation.

    the global ocean bottom temperatures were ~6 degree C higher than today which induces much smaller volume of sediment hosting gas hydrate than today, global hydrate amount before PETM was thought much less than present-day estimates

  31. Colorado Bob says:

    If we’re going to hell let’s buy some bullets on the way.
    Following what has been happening here , we but lumber . Every stick we can lay our hands on in a pool. Then we use it , for our purposes .
    No sin in that , no sin at all.

  32. Colorado Bob says:

    I really want a pool that we buy into to use the money for a better reason than just a 3 car garage.

  33. prokaryotes says:

    The sudden release of large amounts of natural gas from methane clathrate deposits in runaway climate change could be a cause of past, future, and present climate changes. The release of this trapped methane is a potential major outcome of a rise in temperature; it is thought that this is a main factor in the global warming of 6°C that happened during the end-Permian extinction as methane is much more powerful as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide (despite its atmospheric lifetime of around 12 years, it has a global warming potential of 72 over 20 years and 25 over 100 years). The theory also predicts this will greatly affect available oxygen content of the atmosphere.

    Focusing on the Permian-Triassic boundary, Gregory Ryskin [1] explores the possibility that mass extinction can be caused by an extremely fast, explosive release of dissolved methane (and other dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide) that accumulated in the oceanic water masses prone to stagnation and anoxia (e.g., in silled basins).

  34. Colorado Bob says:

    we buy lumber –
    The price of a 2X4 is about to take off , even if we never notice. And if we pool our money for a better effort there is no sin.

  35. Colorado Bob says:

    If we don’t have money, then we’re just a bunch whining weenies on the web.

  36. Colorado Bob says:

    Let us pool our money , and bet like the Republicans on forest fires in congress.

  37. Colorado Bob says:

    I have $100.00 dollars for the pool.

  38. Colorado Bob says:

    2 tears ago , we raised over $90 thousand dollars when I said I’d give $20 bucks.

  39. Colorado Bob says:

    Let’s beat them at their own game.

  40. prokaryotes says:


    In a recent study, Huybers and Langmuir (2009) proposed that glacially induced volcanism, triggered by the depressurization of the upper mantle increased the frequency of volcanic eruptions worldwide, and thus plays a key role in the atmospheric CO2 balance and ice‐age cycles. A link between arc volcanism and the 41 ka Milankovitch periodicity also emerges from a statistical evaluation of macroscopically visible marine tephra deposits near circum‐Pacific arcs (Jegen et al., 2010). On a more immediate scale, Tuffen (2010) concluded that ongoing glacier recession likely will result in intensification of eruptions worldwide, with a corresponding increase in associated hazards.‐alaska-volcanic-arc/

  41. prokaryotes says:

    I’m not sure that lumber is a perfect example, because since you increase demand, more lumber must be generated..

    I think it would be good to invest in things which help to overcome climate disruption and technologies to help curb global warming.

    Biochar production can be arranged from organic waste, which people are happy to give away.

    YOu would require the infrastructure to collect the waste (best case with electric transport), a location to setup a biochar facility to create biochar and then you need to sell the biochar over the internet and locally.

  42. Colorado Bob says:

    We don’t give the money to us. That’s why we aren’t Republicans.

  43. Colorado Bob says:

    prokaryotes –
    I’m a lefty all my life . But the left, AS ALWAYS , split hairs . If we were on the the right , I’d have 30 grand right now.

  44. prokaryotes says:

    The thing is you can expect to get support from your government. And you would require some people with know-how about biochar generation and best facility design (to collect syngas and oil in the process and make the heating process self sufficient). I think that some Colorado universities have some heads with know how and there are private people and maybe organizations in the area…

    For example this company from Colorado makes a good expression Is listed here

    BUt be careful and write your government and ask about specific programs to subsidies biochar pilot projects.

  45. Colorado Bob says:

    prokaryotes –
    Everyone on the left see’s themselves as a general, everyone on the right is a sargent.

    You and I are sargents , but we see our selves as generals.

  46. prokaryotes says:

    There are so many possibilities, recycling of batteries, car sharing, car dealer for ev’s and hybrid + electric car conversion workshop, solar and wind farm construction, renewable energy consultant … hard to judge where you fit in best. My guess is you know what is best for you, follow your instincts :)

  47. Colorado Bob says:

    prokaryotes –
    When hell comes breakfast , sargents not generals turn it back.

  48. prokaryotes says:

    Ok ;) btw sounds like a riddle :)

  49. Colorado Bob says:

    My point :
    Colour-Sergeant Bourne

    The character actor Nigel Green, born in Pretoria, South Africa, in 1924, was educated in England and studied chemical engineering before winning a scholarship to the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London. By age 24, he was appearing on stage at both the Old Vic and Stratford-on-Avon,

    You and I would have entered the jaws of hell behind this guy , yes he’s just a movie, bit every bit of courage any man has ever had is there in Colour-Sergeant Bourne

  50. Colorado Bob says:

    Zulu –
    Two Lieutenants, Chard of Engineers and Bromhead find that their 140 man contingent in Natal has been isolated by the destruction of the main British Army column and that 4,000 Zulu warriors will descend on them in hours. Each has a different military background in tactics and they are immediatly in conflict on how to prepare for the attack. Nearly a third of the men are in the infirmary, as the welsh company tries to somehow survive with no help in sight. Based on a true story…………..

    Lieutenant John Chard R.E. died 1976 –
    (1964) Played by Stanley Baker

    Colour Sergeant Bourne: A prayer’s as good as bayonet on a day like this.

    Colour Sergeant Bourne: It’s a miracle.
    Lieutenant John Chard: If it’s a miracle, Colour Sergeant, it’s a short chamber Boxer Henry point 45 caliber miracle.
    Colour Sergeant Bourne: And a bayonet, sir, with some guts behind.

  51. Colorado Bob says:

    prokaryotes –
    The left has no Colour Sergeant Bourne.

  52. muoncounter says:

    Sorry, prokaryotes, this paper says “in our opinion, the most important of these factors are cosmic rays and cosmic dust… ” He presents no new data, preferring instead to regurgitate date from studies down prior 2000. He provides no evidence for separating cooling from cosmic ray induced ionization and cloud formation from cooling due to lower solar output.

    It is basically worthless.

  53. John McCormick says:

    Colorado, I attended the State Department showing of that marvelous documentary about Himalayan glacier melt. Before I went, I forwarded to the event coordinators, Steve MIlloy’s despicable offer and warned that a troll might be in the audience to cash in.

    The coordinator resorted to paper questions so the dastard was thwarted.

  54. Jay Alt says:

    Thanks John